Current issue

Issue 65-66 (2022)

Klimentina Ivanova, Tsvetomira Danova (Sofia) – The Synaxarion Readings for Holy Friday in Triodion No. 138 from the Khludov Collection in the State Historical Museum, Moscow.13–48THE SYNAXARION READINGS FOR HOLY FRIDAY IN TRIODION No. 138 FROM THE KHLUDOV COLLECTION IN THE STATE HISTORICAL MUSEUM, MOSCOW

Klimentina Ivanova, Tsvetomira Danova (Sofia)

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to introduce two hitherto unknown Middle Bulgarian synaxarion readings contained in manuscript No. 138 from the Khludov Collection (MS Khlud. 138) – a Middle Bulgarian old-redaction Triodion of the second half of the thirteenth century. So far, attention has been given to those readings in it whose author is supposedly St Clement of Ohrid. The rest are undescribed and unknown. This article focuses on two of them, which were read during the Service of the Twelve Gospels at Holy Friday Matins. The first is “Miracle of the Crucifix and the Jew”, whose Greek source is unknown to us. The second, titled “Homily and Sermon on the Passion of Christ”, is most probably not a translation. Its central motif is Christ’s Descent into Hell. The analysis of this Homily has established that it is based mainly on two Byzantine works, translated as early as the ninth–tenth centuries. Its author used the Homily on Holy Saturday attributed to Epiphanius of Cyprus, and Homily XCIX from the Paraenesis associated with Ephrem the Syrian.
This article enriches Old Bulgarian literature with new works and draws scholarly attention to synaxarion readings, to their connection with the Byzantine models, the various means of their adaptation, and their place in Triodia and Triodion Panegyrika.

Keywords: Triodion; MS Khlud. 138; synaxarion readings; Service of the Twelve Gospels; Epiphanius of Cyprus; Ephrem the Syrian; Miracle of the Crucifix and the Jew; Homily and Sermon on the Passion of Christ
Iskra Hristova - Shomova (Sofia) – The Common Offices by St Clement of Ohrid in Manuscript Undol’skii 100.49–98THE COMMON OFFICES BY ST CLEMENT OF OHRID IN MANUSCRIPT UNDOL’SKII 100

Iskra Hristova-Shomova (Sofia)

Manuscript Undol’skii 100 is kept in the Collection of Vukol M. Undol’skii in the Russian State Library. This is a Festal Menaion of the mid-fifteenth century. The Common Offices are on ff. 214b–224c. They were discovered by Blagoy Shalamanov in 1987. He noted his discovery in five consecutive publications but did not publish the full texts of the offices. Thus, this is the first complete publication of the copy of the Common Offices in Undol’skii’s manuscript. There are three other copies of the Common Offices by Clement of Ohrid: (1) in Codex Hankenstein (kept in Vienna, Slav. 37) of the thirteenth century, there are six offices: for a prophet, for an apostle, for a Church Father, for a reverend, for a male martyr, and for a female martyr; (2) in the fourteenth-century manuscript 1052 from the Sofia Collection of the Russian National Library (St Petersburg), only the offices for a male martyr and for a prophet are attested; (3) in the Ohrid Menaion of 1435, four of the offices are extant: for a prophet, for an apostle, for a Church Father, and for a reverend. The comparison between the Common Offices in Undol’skii 100 and the copies in the other three codices shows that only the canons of Clement’s offices have been preserved in this manuscript (the stichera and the kathismata have been replaced with different texts), and moreover, that they have partially been changed: some troparia have been omitted, and some of the theotokia have been replaced. While the canons for a prophet, for an apostle, for a Church Father, and for a male martyr are preserved in Undol’skii 100, the canon for St Euthymius the Great by Clement of Ohrid is used for the canon for a reverend. Further, the texts of the canons in Undol’skii 100 contain errors or new variant readings, but in some instances keep the correct variant, used in the initial, original text of the Old Bulgarian author. The juxtaposition of the texts of the offices in the four manuscripts allows us to divide them into two distinct textual families, each with its common variants and errors. One of them encompasses Codex Hankenstein and the Ohrid Menaion, while the other consists of mss Sofia 1052 and Undol’skii 100.

Keywords: office; Common Offices; Menaion; manuscript; Clement of Ohrid
Dobriela Kotova (Sofia) – Sermon 42 of Uchitel’noe Evangelie: Translation and Originality.99–126SERMON 42 OF UCHITEL’NOE EVANGELIE: TRANSLATION AND ORIGINALITY

Dobriela Kotova (Sofia)

Abstract: This article tackles the question of whether the commentary part of Sermon 42 of Constantine of Preslav’s Uchitel’noe evangelie (Didactic Gospel) is original or translated. It is peculiar for its brevity and lack of real clarification. The whole sermon has hitherto been considered to have been authored by Constantine, as no correspondences have been found in a Greek source.
Its comparison, however, with different types of catenae commenting on Lk 17:12–19 shows that the middle part of this sermon is translated. This translation was made mainly from a manuscript which contained a Type A catena to the Gospel of Luke (CPG C 130, sixth century). Some differences with it, however, point to other types of catenae. The brevity and peculiarity of the sermon also stem from the Greek source.
The deviations from the main Greek source text have parallels in the commentary of Type B catenae (CPG C 131, seventh century) to the same passage from the Gospel of Luke, but Dobriela Kotova argues that they are rather related to certain fragments preserved in the eleventh-century catena of Nicetas of Heraclea (CPG C 135). It might be assumed that the additions and changes made in the middle part of Sermon 42, as compared to the main source, resulted from the influence of a larger catena or another source which somehow became common to both the Slavonic translator and Nicetas of Heraclea.

Keywords: Uchitel’noe evangelie (Didactic Gospel), Sermon 42; Constantine of Preslav; Greek New Testament catenae; Greek-Slavonic translation
Kiril Nenov(Sofia) – The Name ΟΜΟ(Y)ΡΤΑΓ in Bulgarian Inscriptions of the Ninth Century.127–151THE NAME ΟΜΟ(Y)ΡΤΑΓ IN BULGARIAN INSCRIPTIONS OF THE NINTH CENTURY

Kiril Nenov (Sofia)

Abstract: Since the end of the nineteenth century and based on the well-known medieval Bulgarian inscriptions, this ruler’s name has traditionally been presented in modern historiography with the initial sound o-: Omortag, Omurtag, and even Omărtag. These forms are based on the belief that all letters of the string are an integral part of the ruler’s name. As early as 1945, however, Henri Grégoire noted that the initial o- in this name represents the masculine singular nominative form of the Greek definite article. Veselin Beshevliev claims that this is not the case with the name Omurtag, because in “the Proto-Bulgarian expressions κανα συβηγη Ωμουρταγ this name always appears with o- in the beginning”. In defence of this opinion, the Bulgarian philologist gives as an example the use of the name Malamir in inscriptions: κανα συβηγη Μαλαμηρ when combined in a Bulgarian expression, but ὁ Μαλαμιρ when used in a Greek sentence. However, the examples from the Bulgarian inscriptions of the ninth century testify rather to the existence of a different approach in compiling the texts and, possibly, to different compilers. In the first model, probably a Greek definite article is used before the name of the ruler despite the Bulgarian title preceding it; in the second, the Bulgarian expression is not governed by Greek grammatical rules, while the third completely ignores the definite article before the names until the Greek words appear in the text. The detailed examination and analysis of the letter series ΟΜΟΡΤΑΓ / ΟΜΟYΡΤΑΓ from the Bulgarian inscriptions of the ninth century gives grounds to consider it equivalent to ὁ Μορταγ / ὁ Μουρταγ. Whether the two forms were used synchronously or during different periods in the Bulgarian epigraphic monuments cannot be established at this stage. Their eventual chronological dependence could otherwise contribute to the dating of the inscriptions according to the use of one of the two records of the anthroponym. From the point of view of the proposed arguments, the name of this Bulgarian ruler should be rendered as Mortag / Murtag, without insisting that each phoneme corresponds to its original pronunciation. Regarding the origin of the appellation, at this stage the most plausible hypothesis is that it is connected with names from the Iranian group of languages, but its etymology cannot be considered definitively established.

Keywords: medieval Bulgarian inscriptions; pagan Bulgarian names; Omurtag; ninth-century Bulgaria; medieval Greek
Maria Yovcheva(Sofia) – South Slavic Successors to the Tarnovo Version of the Office Menaion of the Thirteenth Century.152–183SOUTH SLAVIC SUCCESSORS TO THE TARNOVO VERSION OF THE OFFICE MENAION OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY

Maria Yovcheva (Sofia)

Abstract: This article examines nine South Slavic manuscripts originating from the Tarnovo version of the Menaion, as the earliest among them are the two thirteenth-century codices of the copyist Dobrian (ОGNB 32 + 24.4.12 (Srezn. 59) of the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences and ОGNB 33 + GIM Uvar. 1176-4°). Arguments for their relationship are some identification markers from the calendar and the contents of the offices. The indicators specific to this family are given primary importance in the examination of the manuscripts, but others are also applied, based on the opposition new-redaction / old-redaction (i.e., menaia structured according to the old Studite typikon and composed before the fourteenth century / menaia structured according to the Jerusalem typikon and composed mainly during and after the fourteenth century). Twenty-three menaia manuscripts and four early printed books (Greek and Church Slavonic) are used as comparisons. The data obtained lead to several conclusions: (1) the Office Menaion, formed during the thirteenth century in the Bulgarian capital, is non-homogeneous since it contains both unique and old- and new-redaction specificities; (2) although related to the fading Studite liturgical practice, this version was actively used and modified in a Bulgarian and Serbian environment until the seventeenth century. In the fourteenth century it was developed, in connection with the newly introduced Neo-Sabaitic (or Jerusalem) typikon, by adding new hymns, making the compositions more complex, standardizing and updating the calendar, sometimes even by commemorations of the Studite type; (3) the three main levels – calendar, contents, and structure – show an unequal degree of redactor intervention in coordinating the Office Menaion with the new liturgical regulations; (4) not only the protograph but also all subsequent copies are of a hybrid type.
This article presents arguments of a diverse nature for the localization of the earliest Bulgarian sources, i.e., the Dobrian codices and menaia of the fourteenth century (No. 19 of the Krka Monastery, No. 33 of the Cetinje Monastery, Zograph 115, Paris. Slav. 23): (1) the area of original copying and distribution; (2) the focus on the feasts of the Theotokos and the registration of a unique commemoration, Consecration of the Church of the Theotokos on 22 August, in ОGNB 33; (3) two commemorations confined only to this family – St Philothea Temnishka on 28 May and St John of Rila (on 18 August, with the canon in Tone Two), which are not supported by other old-redaction liturgical books. The hypothesis is advanced that the place of origin of the Tarnovo “new menaion” and of part of the Bulgarian copies could be the Monastery of St. Bogoroditsa Temnishka.

Keywords: Office Menaion; Tarnovo version of the Office Menaion; transmission of the hymnographic texts; South Slavic menaia manuscripts; ecclesiastical feasts and commemorations
Georgi Petkov (Plovdiv) – Cycle of Lives of Bulgarian and Serbian Saints in the Verse Synaxarion.184–212CYCLE OF LIVES OF BULGARIAN AND SERBIAN SAINTS

Georgi Petkov (Plovdiv)

Abstract: This article presents data on nine synaxarion lives of Bulgarian and Serbian saints contained in one of the few extant copies of the Verse Synaxarion that covers the whole year. This is manuscript No. 47 in the library of the Zograph Monastery on Mount Athos (Zogr47). It is dated between 1473 and 1524, and its redаction is defined as Bulgarian without juses (ѫ, ѧ). It was created by two brothers from the village of Piskopie, near Debar – Yoan and Nikola Miloshev. The manuscript can be divided into two parts: the first part contains the complete Tаrnovo recension of the Verse Synaxarion and is the work of Yoan Miloshev; the second is his brother Nikola’s. The first part includes six original synaxarion lives of Bulgarian and Serbian saints: of St Petka of Tarnovo (14 October), St John of Rila (19 October), St Ilarion of Maglen (21 October), St Michael the Bulgarian (22 November), St Sava of Serbia (14 January), and St Simeon of Serbia (13 February), as well as the text of a translated from Greek verse synaxarion life of St Clement of Ohrid (27 July). The second part begins with the only surviving copy of the First synaxarion life of St Naum of Preslav-Ohrid (23 December), followed by the synaxarion life of the Byzantine saint Erasmus of Ohrid (of Formia). Next are twenty-five Sunday sermons. The inclusion of so many verses about Bulgarian and Serbian saints in one codex makes this manuscript unique. It should be given its due place in research on the Verse Synaxarion. It is a testimony to the perceived need for unity in spiritual activities in the Balkans under foreign rule. The Appendix contains the texts from Zogr47 in calendar order, and variant readings given from the oldest Bulgarian and Serbian copies of the Verse Synaxarion. It can be concluded that the synaxarion verses of the lives of Bulgarian and Serbian saints in Zogr47 preserved the texts without major changes for more than one century.

Keywords: Verse Synaxarion; manuscript; Tarnovo recension; lives of saints; Bulgarian and Serbian saints
Radoslava Stankova (Sofia) – The Office for St Petka of Tarnovo (Paraskeve of Epibatai) with an Unknown Canon in the Fourth Tone in Manuscripts of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries in the National Library in Warsaw.213–243THE OFFICE FOR ST PETKA OF TARNOVO (PARASKEVE OF EPIBATAI)

Radoslava Stankova (Sofia)

This article examines a version of the office for St Petka of Tarnovo (Paraskeve of Epibatai) in Cyrillic manuscripts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries kept in the National Library of Poland, which contains a canon in the fourth tone that is unknown in South Slavic manuscripts of previous centuries. In the manuscripts with copies of the office under review, one finds hymnographic components of the earliest office in Dragan’s Menaion (the kathisma, kontakion, oikos and photagogikon, the stichera for Great Vespers and the three stichera of the Lauds), but the canons in this office are different from the canon in Dragan’s Menaion. The first canon in this office is from the so-called Vidin (Bdin) office for St Petka of Tarnovo and the motif of the translation of her relics is mentioned in it for the first time, while the second canon is in the fourth tone.
In structural and textological terms, the office under review here contains new hymnographic components that are not known in South Slavic copies. The present study is based on ten manuscripts in the National Library in Warsaw. For the time being, it is difficult to determine when and where this office for St Petka was written and translated, and how it reached the Kingdom of Poland. One can only assume that it was written on the occasion of the deposition of the saint’s relics in a church dedicated to her in the sixteenth century (perhaps in Constantinople) and subsequently translated, I believe, most probably in Romania, in connection with the final deposition of her relics. There is no doubt that the canon in the fourth tone and the whole office were written specifically for a church dedicated to the venerable saint. An Appendix presents the text of the office as copied in a sixteenth-century manuscript, Akc. 2855, in the National Library in Warsaw.

Keywords: St Petka of Tarnovo (Paraskeve of Epibatai); office; canon in the fourth tone
Olga M. Mladenova (Calgary) – A Contribution to the Study of Bulgarian Early Modern Popular Literature: Manuscript 193 of the Collection of the Athonite Hilandar Monastery.244–281A CONTRIBUTION TO THE STUDY OF BULGARIAN EARLY MODERN POPULAR LITERATURE: MANUSCRIPT 193 OF THE COLLECTION OF THE ATHONITE HILANDAR MONASTERY

Olga M. Mladenova (Calgary)

Abstract: The article describes the content of the Hilandar manuscript 193, written in the vernacular, and places it in the context of Bulgarian damaskins. The author argues that it is counterproductive to insist on the narrow definition of ‘damaskin’, which denies the right of such manuscripts to be treated together with prototypical damaskins. The manuscript contains one of the three known complete handwritten copies of a miscellany with a focus on spiritually beneficial tales and apocrypha, most of which also circulated prior to their inclusion into the set of five texts that was copied together. The comparison of the most recent of the stories – that about the secret servant of God St. Euphrosynus the Cook – with the older Church Slavonic and Greek textual traditions, makes it possible to capture the specificity of the Early Modern Bulgarian version. In contrast with the older tradition, in which Euphrosynus figures as a despised simpleton, the Early Modern Bulgarian version shows him as a literate man respected from the outset by his brethren. The author suggests that the new image of the saint is in line with the tremendous value attached to literacy and education in the intellectual circles to which the compiler belonged. It is in those circles that the cult of the Slavic Apostles St. St. Cyril and Methodius would eventually be reintroduced among Bulgarians as their national symbol. The distribution of the frescoes, representing Euphrosynus in the Orthodox cultural space, overlaps with that of the miscellanies under discussion only in Mount Athos, which leads the author to believe that the prototype of those miscellanies must have come into being there.

Keywords: literature for the common people, damaskin, spiritually beneficial tale, cult of literacy
Evgeni Zashev (Sofia) – Lieux de mémoire of St Gorazd and St Angelarius in the City of Berat (Albania).282–316LIEUX DE MÉMOIRE OF ST GORAZD AND ST ANGELARIUS

Evgeni Zashev (Sofia)

Abstract: This article examines various lieux de mémoire associated with St Gorazd and St Angelarius in the city of Berat (Belograd, Velagrad, Velegrad or Albanian Belgrade), in order to highlight the place and role of the memory of these two disciples of Cyril and Methodius in the process of the emergence and institutionalization of the cult of the Holy Heptarithmoi (the Seven Slavic Saints). Its objects of study are oral lore about the relics of St Gorazd and St Angelarius, and the artefacts and written monuments attesting to the veneration of these saints. The various sources presented here categorically attest that in the eighteenth–nineteenth centuries, and perhaps quite earlier, the memory of St Gorazd and St Angelarius was venerated in Berat. This memory was most probably entirely post-biographical and had mixed (folk and literary) origins, based on their supposed relics. It is the connection with these relics that unites a series of lieux de mémoire which, arranged in chronological order, look like this: Berat (Venetian) office for the Seven Slavic Saints with a canon dedicated to St Gorazd and St Angelarius (1720); an icon of the Seven Slavic Saints representing the assumption of St Gorazd and St Angelarius (1812–1814); two reliquaries in the shape of shoes, one of them dedicated to St Angelarius (1823); A Brief Historical Overview of the Holy Metropolitanate of Velehrad by Anthimos Alexoudis, indicating the church of the Dormition of the Theotokos in Berat as the place where the relics of St Gorazd and St Angelarius were preserved (1868); a second icon of the Seven Slavic Saints representing the assumption of St Gorazd and St Angelarius (1873); a silver-plated reliquary from the church of the Dormition of the Theotokos in Berat. The hypothesis is presented that the meaningful framework uniting those lieux de mémoire is a local oral narrative that is partially reconstructed. The interpretation of the sources listed and of the links between them points to the conclusion that the “relics” of St Gorazd and St Angelarius were the material basis for the construction of a local tradition of veneration which, in turn, formed the core of the cult of the Seven Slavic Saints that was institutionalized in the early eighteenth century. These relics are the sacred centre around which the memory of the seven Slavic enlighteners was organized in Berat and its surroundings – a cult that was to be gradually freed from this dependence, as the chronologically second Moscopole office for the Seven Saints shows, and to become part of Bulgarian Revival culture.

Keywords: the Seven Slavic Saints; St Gorazd; St Angelarius; Berat; lieux de mémoire
Slavia Barlieva (Sofia) – The Baptism of the Bulgarians in a Baroque Musical Drama from Vienna.317–345.THE BAPTISM OF THE BULGARIANS

Slavia Barlieva (Sofia)

Abstract: From the Middle Ages to the Modern Age and its Age of Enlightenment, the conversion to Christianity is the most common motif in Western historical sources about Bulgarian history. Baroque literature does not deviate from this tradition and frequently uses this motif – in hagiographic, homiletic, and very often in dramatic works performed in educational institutions of the Jesuit Order.
This article presents a musical drama titled The Fruitful, Free and Wonderful Baptism by God’s Providence of Bogor, King of the Moesians that was performed on an uncertain date in 1716 at the Royal Academic Jesuit College in Vienna. Twenty-three dramatic works of the eighteenth century, dedicated to the Bulgarian Christianization, were known until now. They have been investigated and published by Nadezhda. Andreeva in 2004. The play introduced here is another one, the earliest drama on the subject. It is a musical work composed by Johann Georg Reinhart, a well-known court musician in Vienna. The author of the text is unknown.
The play has come down to us in the form of a booklet, called in the Baroque theatrical tradition periocha, containing a bilingual Latin-German summary of the drama. The booklet contains nineteen pages: an Argumentum in Latin with parallel content (Geschichts-Inhalt) in German, as well as a bilingual prologue, three acts, and an epilogue. Between the acts are two chorus parts, also bilingual. The narrative is indicated as being based on the Chronicles of Sigebert of Gembloux and Skylitzes–Kedrenos.
The periocha presented here does not list all dramatis personae, noting only some of them. Still, the number of participants in the performance speaks of a monumental spectacle: 187 participants are listed by name in the cast list, along with their nationality, status, and profession or faculty. Through participation in the musical drama about the Bulgarian conversion to Christianity, the educated Baroque public acquired knowledge, albeit with quite a few historical errors, that represented the Bulgarians as bearers of the values of Christian Europe.
The article concludes with an Appendix containing a Bulgarian translation of the Latin text of the periocha.

Keywords: Jesuit drama; periocha; Bogor/Boris-Michael; baptism of Bulgarians
Lora Taseva(Sofia) – Psalterium Demetrii Sinaitici (Monasterii Sanctae Catharinae Codex Slav. 3/N) Adiectis Foliis Medicinalibus. Wien, Holzhausen, 2012, 301 S. Psalterium Demetrii Sinaitici et Folia Medicinalia (Monasterii Sanctae Catharinae Codex Slavicus NF 3). Wien, Holzhausen, 2021, 540 S. (Glagolitica Sinaitica. Editionen und Abhandlungen zur glagolitisch-altkirchenslavischen Tradition des Sinai, 1-2). ISBN: 978-3-90286-801-5; 978-3-902868-80-0; ISSN: 2304-6724 346–354/issues/65/346-Taseva.pdf
Tatiana Slavova(Sofia) – V. B. Krysʹ ko, V. Hok. Mučenie Iriny. Vizantijskoe žitie v staroslavjanskom perevode. Izdanie. Issledovanie. Ukazateli. Moskva–Sankt-Peterburg: Nestor-Istorija, 2021. 344 s., 87 fotokopii. ISBN 978-5-4469-2024-2355–363/issues/65/355-Slavova.pdf
Tsvetan Vasilev(Sofia) – Dorotei Getov. Capita Ascetica Serdicensia (an Early Byzantine Anthology of Christian Precepts): a Critical Edition of the Greek Text with an Introduction and English Translation. Leuven: Peeters, 2021. 212 рр. (Spicilegium Sacrum Lovaniense: Études et documents, fasc. 59). ISBN: 978-90-429-4347-6 364–368/issues/65/364-Vasilev.pdf
Neli Gancheva(Sofia) – Boyka Mircheva. Slavjanski kirilo-metodievski izvori. Interfejs i grafičen dizajn: Alike Studio. Sofija: Kirilo-Metodievski naučen centǎr, 2021.издания/е-книги/; ISBN 978-954-9787-51-1369–374/issues/65/369-Gancheva.pdf
Heinz Miklas(Vienna) – Memories of Stefan Kozhuharov 375–378/issues/65/375-Miklas.pdf
Adelinа Germanovа (Sofia) – Publications on Old Bulgarian Literature and Culture Published in Bulgaria 2021 379–421